Pre-Contest Week - An In Depth Analysis
Four decades ago a team of Swedish researchers set out to investigate glycogen and its role in energy production (Bergström et al., 1967). What was discovered forever changed the world of applied exercise science. It was reasoned that if you could somehow expand an athlete's supply of fuel that it would proportionally enhance their performance. The question was, how could this be accomplished? It is this query to which this paper is centered. A query which not only led to the stated goal of the afore mentioned project, but also to the ability to exponentially expand a participant’s muscularity on stage.
This paper will begin by first defining the primary goals of the bodybuilder. That is, what the participant’s objectives are for the day of competition.
- The concept of mass is accomplished in the off-season. For optimal
precision the athlete must photograph themselves from all angels possible,
and then design a program which changes the shape, and contours of their
structure accordingly. The current paper is not primarily concerned with
this stage, but rather the after effects of it. For the process of
gaining size is not a selective one. When an excess of calories are
consumed, adipose, an unwanted enemy tags along.
1. Integument - Skin (integument) is classified as an " organ. " An organ is defined as two or more types of tissues, which work in tandem for a common goal. Relevant properties associated with Integument are as follows.
A. The skin is composed of two layers. The first is called the epidermis, which means on the skin. This is a layer of cells, meant to line body parts. The cells are called epithelium. They are characterized as being very tightly bound, and in this case water proofed. The reader should understand that the epidermis is not an enemy, as it is not a site for fat accumulation.
B. The second layer, deep to the epidermis is the " dermis. " This is a layer of connective tissue, and it has many vital properties to the bodybuilder. To elaborate, connective tissue is composed of various fibrous proteins. Of prime importance to the bodybuilder are the " elastic fibers. " These have the ability to stretch and recoil. This will be discussed further shortly.
The hypodermis is Greek for beneath the skin. Often you will hear the
It must be
understand that body fat must be reduced to extremely low levels to see
the muscle below. But it isn't that simple. Think of the skin,
especially the dermis, as a type of wrap. The best analogy is to compare
it to the type of gloves used by doctors for operations. These are
elastic, however, if you were to put on a pair that was too large for your
hands, you'd end up seeing several wrinkles and your knuckles would be
obstructed. If however, you obtained a size that was too small, it
would fit tight to your skin, and your knuckles, and all the features of
your hands could be seen with near perfect clarity! The same concept can
be applied to the integument, if its elastic properties are utilized
properly. The first strategy is to slow down your dieting season. The
quicker you cut up, the less tightly your skin will bind to the deep
fascia below it. Therefore you will want to really plan your cut. One
strategy is to cycle like so:
The above points had to be laid out, but
those which lie below are what this particular paper is mainly directed
towards. To be more specific, the focus is on the process an athlete must
endure for peak conditioning, on stage the final week before the show.
1. The first goals that must be
attained are peaked muscular hardness and fullness.
Glycogen is a form of stored energy. To be more exact, it is the major source of carbohydrate energy during intense training sessions. King (2003) describes it as a polymer of glucose, meaning that the molecule is made by combining glucose units in a branched pattern. A process known as glycogenolysis (the breakdown of glycogen), occurs to release the energy stored in this molecule. The energy is then utilized to synthesize ATP, which is the body's fuel currency (as gasoline is to a car). Glycogen's importance in athletic performance is well documented. For example, in the Canadian Journal of Physiology, biopsies (in the biceps) were examined in 8 bodybuilders across a typical arm-curl training session. After only one set researchers found that muscle glycogen stores in the Biceps had decreased by a whopping 12 percent (MacDougall et al. 1999)! Haff et al. (2000) noted that after three sets of leg extensions, the the vastus lateralis ( outer quad sweep) was depleted of 17 percent of its glycogen stores. Tesch et al. (1998) found a 40 percent decrease in glycogen stores after 5 sets of 10 repetitions on concentric knee extensions (extensions minus the lowering phase) at 60 percent of the participants 1 repetition maximum. Even at only 45 percent of the participants max, concentric knee extensions resulted in a 20 percent drop in stored energy!
In another study Robergs et al. (1991)
investigated skeletal muscle glycogen metabolism in eight male
participants during and after six sets of 70 % one repetition maximum, and
35 % repetition maximum during a weight resistance leg extension exercise.
Comparison of various leg extension conditions found that leg
extensions performed at 70 percent 1RM, decreased muscle glycogen stores
by 39 percent. Leg extensions performed at 35 percent found a 38 percent
decrease in glycogen stores. The question now is, what happens when fuel
is low, and how badly is performance hindered? Jacobs, Kaiser, and Tesch
(1981) investigated the effect of depleting varying muscle fibers on
strength levels. It was found that glycogen exhaustion from both
fiber types in the vastus lateralis was associated with impaired maximal
muscular strength produced during a single dynamic contraction, as well as
with reduced muscle fatigue patterns. When glycogen depletion was induced
in slow twitch muscle fibers, maximum strength was not hindered. However
performance was hindered during 50 consecutive repetitions. Such results
have been confirmed over and over in scientific journals
It was knowledge such as this which led Bergstrom et al. (1967) to research any method possible that might increase the athlete's ability to store this important energy source. Bergstrom et al. (1967) utilized a protocol which in a six day span allowed athletes to increase muscular glycogen stores up to four times greater than pre-treatement values! In the realm of science however, experiments must be repeatable. The more repeatable, the more ground they have for acceptance. Perhaps no method has more backing. It has been shown over and over again to just plain produce, and is accepted as fact in countless scientific journals (Goforth et al. 1997).
Reasons for the importance of this method to the bodybuilder is as follows: Firstly, one must understand that a muscle cell is composed of protein filaments, various organelles, myoglobin, and vital nutrients. You have no doubt noted that when low carb dieting, your muscles appear extremely flat, and lose much of their dynamic appearance. Such a process is heavily due to the presence of muscle glycogen. You see, this molecule adds size to the cell - exceptional size! For every gram of glycogen stored in the muscle a whopping 2.7 grams of water are drawn into the cell! To show you just how drastic a size increase you can obtain in a week, consider this: On average, for every 100 grams of muscle, 1.7 grams of glycogen are stored. You can increase this to 4 to five grams. Remember 5 grams of glycogen recruits an additional 13.5 grams of water. The water pulled into the cell is due to a concept known as osmolarity( and electrical attractions etc. ). I will discuss this concept, during the section on water depletion. Just realize that the attractive force the extra glycogen particles have on water, can literally draw extra cellular fluid into the muscle cell, thus increasing size, and diminishing obstruction at the same time! You will be fuller, harder, and more shredded than you had ever imagined possible! Also recall, that previous to contest week you dieted in such a way as to keep the skin extremely tight. As your muscles suddenly expand, they will pull your skin that much closer to the underlying muscles giving you the coveted shrink-wrapped look!
Steps Needed to Increase Glycogen Supercompensation
In order to grasp this concept, the participant must first understand how glycogen is synthesized. And in order to understand how a product is synthesized, they will need to understand that ultimately it is enzymes (catalytic machinery ), which are responsible for such processes. Spetner (1999), one of the worlds leading experts on the " Information Theory " summarizes the concept as follows:
The cell performs thousands of different chemical reactions. Each reaction consists of changing a molecule into one or more others. All the chemical reactions in a cell are mediated by catalysts. A catalyst always comes out of a reaction unchanged, and it can be reused indefinitely. The catalyst acts on the molecule that is the input to the reaction, and produces the output molecule(s). The input is known as the substrate, and the output is known as the product. The protein's most widespread role is as a catalyst in biochemical reactions, and in this role it is called an enzyme. An enzyme often speeds up chemical activity so much that it can make a reaction go that otherwise wouldn't. Each reaction has its own enzyme. An enzyme speeds up a reaction rate by a factor of at least a million [Darnell et al. 1986] .An increase in rate by factors of ten billion to a hundred trillion are not uncommon [Kraut 1988]. A factor of a hundred trillion means that what takes a thousandth of a second with the enzyme would take about 3000 years without it. Most biochemical reactions would take so long without their enzyme that, in effect, they wouldn't go at all. Because enzymes control nearly all chemical reactions in the cell, we can say that, to a large extent, proteins control the chemistry of life.
To further your comprehension, note
that Spetner (1999) mentioned that enzymes are unaffected by reactions.
In diagrammatical form, a catalytic process in the body can be shown as
those with an intense interest in bioenergetics, the writer would like to
share an intriguing, and very recent discovery. Glycogen synthase
essentially incorporates glucose into an already existing glycogen
molecule. In fact, it needs what is known as a " primer. " That is, a
small chain of glucose units already synthesized before it can build the
molecule to its full size of numerous glucose molecules. For decades
scientists wondered exactly how G. synthase could work, since it was
itself the rate-limiting enzyme. Breakthrough: The answer lies in a
fascinating enzyme known as glycogenin. This architectural wonder has the
ability to build a chain of glucose molecules up to 8 units long, and
essentially acts as a primer .
Increasing Dephosphorylated Glycogen Synthase Concentration
What investigators have found, is that glycogen synthase increases as its product becomes depleted (Friedman, Neufer, & Dohm, 1991, Danforth, 1965). According to Friedman et. al " Glycogen synthase enzyme exists in 2 states: the less active, more phosphorylated form which is under allosteric control of glucose-6-phosphate, and the more active, less phosphorylated form which is independent of glucose-6-phosphate. There is generally an inverse relationship between glycogen content in muscle and the percentage synthase in the activated form. An overwhelming number of studies support the concept.
Halse et al. investigated glycogen
synthesis and the activity of the enzyme glycogen synthase. The
experiment consisted of a six hour incubation of muscle tissue without
glucose which resulted in a 50 % decrease in glycogen content. The effect
of reincubation of physiological concentrations of glucose found a rapid
Thus, it is clearly seen that the depletion is directly correlated to increased glycogen synthase activity. Additionally insulin is an important regulator of the enzyme, and that depletion combined with the presence of insulin has additive effects.
In a genius protocol Zachwieja et al. (1991) investigated what effect the degree of muscle glycogen depletion has on the rate of glycogen re synthesis. six male cyclists completed an exercise protocol that involved both one- and two-legged cycling. The participants consisted of six male cyclists. Participants completed 30 minutes of single leg cycling, followed by 10 one minute sprints. Finally both legs cycled for 30 minutes. Comparison of depletion among legs resulted in a greater amount of depletion in the leg which both single and double leg cycled( M = 93.9 % depletion ) than the leg which cycled with only both legs ( M = 43 % ). Muscle biopsies were taken to analyze the rates of glycogen replenishment in both legs. Participants consumed a 24 % CHO solution every 20 minutes. Comparison of glycogen re synthesis in both legs found that glycogen re synthesis was significantly greater in the single to double leg condition than in the double leg condition. In addition, the activity of GS as expressed by the ratio of dephosphorylated to phosphorylated glycogen was greater in the single to double leg condition than the double leg only condition.
The above, as well as numerous other studies confirm that there is an inverse relationship between the extent of glycogen depletion and the concentration of active glycogen synthase, as well as a muscles ability to super compensate. This is what Bergstrom et al. (1967) utilized in the 60's during their experiments. They effectively depleted muscle's stores for three days, thereby increasing the cells ability to synthesize glycogen. The effect was so dramatic, that after proper loading the following three days, it allowed athletes to quadruple their stored carbohydrate content.
Depleting Vs. Not Depleting: Their Effects on Supercompensation
The effect of depleting glycogen stores
compared to not depleting is a vital topic. Roedde (1986) investigated
whether or not tapering coupled with carbohydrate loading for six days, is
as effective as a depletion stage followed by a loading phase.
Training regimens are extremely complex. In fact, when done the wrong way, this process will not yield even a fraction of the results compared to optimal training.
First, as the above studies have indicated, intense training does severely deplete glycogen stores. Interestingly enough, muscle glycogen stores can be spared quite effectively in the absence of training (Harold et al., 1997), a subject which will be detailed shortly. The " classic " protocol for complete depletion calls for one day of insanely exhaustive training, followed by three days of further depletion style workouts, [Bergström et al. 1967, Harold et al., 1997). The current writer prefers a slight variation to this theme, which will be explained shortly.
For now, the specific style of training needs to be addressed. It is now been shown that specific contractions can actually hinder optimal glycogen replenishment. This is the exact opposite of what is needed. The type of contraction referenced is the eccentric in nature. Widrick et al. (1992) had participants train one leg concentrically and one leg eccentrically on a leg extension apparatus. Glycogen resynthesis rates were then measured over the following 72 hours. Comparison of glycogen resynthesis 18 hours after training in various exercise conditions resulted in 15 percent lower glycogen levels in the eccentrically trained condition, than the concentrically trained condition. This number increased to a 24 percent deficit in 72 hours indicating that glycogen accumulation is impaired in eccentrically trained musculature.
Doyle and colleagues stated that " Eccentric contractions appear to reduce muscle glycogen replenishment during the 1- to 10-day period after exercise . " In order to test this, they had 10 cyclists train one leg concentrically for 10 sets of ten repetitions, while training the opposite leg eccentrically for the same number of reps / sets. There results revealed that " glycogen replenishment was 25% lower in muscle that had undertaken eccentric contractions 48 h earlier than in concentrically exercised muscle. " In the Journal of Applied Physiology Costill et. al had 8 men perform 10 sets of 10 repetitions, again either concentrically or eccentrically with opposite legs. They found that " In both groups, however, significantly less glycogen was stored in the EL than in the CL ." Such results have been confirmed over and over again [39, 4]. The reason for this is complex. However it can be broken down to the fact that eccentric training causes a higher amount of myofibrillar damage, muscle membrane disruption, and inflammation [13, 40, 54]. Such consequences can slow glucose transport( as compared to concentric training ), as well as glycogen synthesis [4,22].
Note: Eccentric exercises have been shown to induce greater myofibrillar hypertrophy in several studies (Higbie et al. 1996, Wilson, 2003). The main point is simply that, this form of training requires a bit more recovery time. It also shows the vital importance of post workout high glycemic carbohydrates, which study after study shows drastically enhances glycogen re-synthesis (Burke, Collier, & Hargreaves, 1993, Roy & Tarnopolsky, 1998, Costill, 1998, Ivy et al., 1988, Carrithers et al., 2000, Zawadzki, 1992, Tarnopolsky, 1997, Roy et al., 1997), allowing the athlete to overcome much of the problem faced.
According to Harold et al. (1997) " Glycogen supercompensation is best achieved when the exercise is largely concentric and the mode of exercise (e.g., cycling) does not disrupt the mechanisms of glycogen synthesis. " Aside from the fact that exercise increases glycogen synthase activity (Friedman et al., 1997), it is also a well known fact that it also increases GLUT 4 receptors (Roves et al., 2003, Ren et al., 1994 ). Roves et al. (2003) stated that we find a " proportional increase in glucose transport capacity " with an increase in GLUT 4 receptors. In other words, the higher the concentration of GLUT 4 receptors in skeletal muscle, the greater the absorption of glucose. Here we find a topic of prime importance to any and all competitors. The term " GLUT " stands for " Glucose Transporter. " The script " 4 " is simply related to the sequence that this transporter was discovered( there are other GLUTS in differing tissues ). A muscle cell is an extremely complex structure. It has what is called a cell membrane, which essentially controls what enters or leaves the cell. This membrane (sarcolema) has a high lipid content (phospholipid bilayer). Lipids are fats. An example of a lipid is an oil. Recall what occurs when you pour oil in water. It rises to the top. This is because lipids are hydrophobic (water fearing). Glucose on the other hand is hydrophilic (water loving). These simply do not mix (another way to describe this is that glucose is polar, while lipids are non-polar). Thus, just as oil and water cannot mix, the glucose (it is lipophobic) cannot cross the lipid bilayer. The cell therefore requires an extremely efficient " transport system. " GLUT 4 receptors act as passive transport systems. That is, they do not require energy to transfer glucose across the cell, but rather rely on concentration gradient. Recall that molecules always diffuse from areas of higher concentration to areas of lower concentration. The cell is constantly synthesizing glycogen, which keeps glucose levels low, and favors an environment conducive to the afore mentioned mechanism.
Glucose transporters have the
following mechanisms of action:
They have a specific site for glucose to bind to them
Seven Day Training Split and Sample Workouts
As you no doubt realize, depletion is highly dependent on the body part trained. In other words, and athlete looking for supercompensation, will deplete the desired body parts. In this sport that means everything! I propose the following split
Straight posing - Style of Posing
discussed in sample workout in appendix
Full Body completely trained in the
morning - No workout at night
Workouts can be found by at the appendix at the end of the article.
The point is to deplete glycogen stores in days one through four (aside from posing on Saturday). On the first three days, you will have an extremely restricted carbohydrate diet (see below). The reason why the athlete will perform a workout to begin their first carb up day (Thursday) is based on the post workout window principle. Traditionally, the carb depletion protocol, as mentioned, begins four days before carb up day. However, workout four has been transferred to the first high carb day, because it allows the participant to take full advantage of the hour following an exercise regimen. To elaborate, glycogen replenishment after training occurs in a biphasic pattern. Jentjens et al.(2003) in the Journal of Sports Medicine states that after exercise " there is a period of rapid synthesis of muscle glycogen " which " lasts about 30-60 minutes. " It is further stated that " after this rapid phase of glycogen synthesis, muscle glycogen synthesis occurs at a much slower rate and this phase can last for several hours. " And finally that the " highest muscle glycogen synthesis rates have been reported when large amounts of carbohydrate are consumed immediately post-exercise . " Thus, bi-phasic refers to the fact that glycogen replenishment is a two stage process, characterized by an early " window of opportunity " followed by a slower period of synthesis.
Ivy et al. (1988) investigated the time
of ingestion of a carbohydrate supplement on muscle glycogen storage
postexercise. Participants consisted of 12 male cyclists. The apparatus
consisted of a cycle Ergometer. Two experimental conditions were
This is one of countless examples
showing why the window of opportunity must be met. And it must be met (if
you want optimal replenishment that is ) by high glycemic carbohydrates.
Burke et. al. (1993) investigated the effect of the glycemic index (GI) of
postexercise carbohydrate intake on muscle glycogen storage. Participants
consisted of five trained cyclists. Two experimental conditions were
utilized. In the first condition,
Outline of Exercise Depletion Plan: Deplete Four Workouts, thereby increasing glycogen synthase as well as glut four receptors. On the fourth workout, you take advantage of the rapid window of opportunity. By combining these factors, a synergistic effect of the combined results of muscular contraction and its role in increasing glycogen synthesis will be realized, with the results attained from three days of previous depletion. In short, you maximize your efforts!
On your recovery days, you will not lift weights. The highest extent of your training will be light, non exhaustive posing to keep the muscles sharp. However, you will want to avoid anything which depletes glycogen stores!
Diet The Week of The Contest
A classic regimen depletion diet is spread throughout four total days. We will utilize a tapering effect as well.
Saturday: Today, you simply begin lowering carbs to approximately .5 grams per pound of bodyweight. Therefore if you weigh 200 pounds, you would take in 100 grams of carbohydrates. Remaining calories will come from protein( approximately 1.5 grams per pound of bodyweight) and fat( discussed in meal plan ).
Carbohydrates are cut down to .4 grams per pound of bodyweight. Therefore
this day you would consume 80 grams of carbs at 200 pounds
That ends the depletion stage. Wednesday through Friday participants will load. During this stage participants will consume 0.5 grams of carbohydrates per pound of bodyweight, per meal, and spread that out over six total feedings. Thus, if you weigh 210 pounds, the athlete would consume a total of 630 carbohydrates, spread throughout six total meals. These recommendations are based on several studies which show that carboydrate supercompensation is best achieved at an intake of 525-650 g CHO/day [21 23, 11 ]. For example Costill(1981) examined athletes who consumed as low as 88 grams of carbohydrates for glycogen resynthesis and continued escalating that number. He found that the relationship between enhanced glycogen stores and increase CHO intake continued in a positive and proportional manner, and reached its peak at approximately "648" carbs in a 24 hour period. This formula will bring each athlete within this range.
The meals plans will be laid out, after sodium depletion is discussed, as this is a vital aspect of the regimen. The question now is, what types of carbohydrates should one consume over these three days for maximum glycogen synthesis? Jozsi et al.(1996) in investigated the effect differing forms of carbohydrates on glycogen replenishment. Here is a summary of their work:
1. Male Cyclists were fed approximately 3, 000 calories after training. The breakdown ratio was 65 % carbohydrate, 20 % fat, and 15 percent protein intake.
2. Participants were provided their carbohydrates from one of a number of sources. A. Glucose (straight up blood sugar, very high GI! ) B. 100 percent waxy starch Amylopectin and C. 100 percent resistant starch Amylose. Amylopectin is rapidly absorbed and easily digested.
various carbohydrate feeding conditions found the greatest
glycogen synthesis in the Glucose condition (197.7 +/- 31.6 millimoles per kilogram of dry weight)
Their conclusion is consistent with Burke et al who also showed that less resistant, high GI rated CHO markedly replenished glycogen superiorly to low glycemic, resistant G.I. index carbs. This was again confirmed by Coyle et al. in which it was found that high glycemic index foods replenished carbs faster than lower glycemic. However, they also noted that intermediate glycemic foods augmented synthetic rates comparably to high glycemic. Thus, we can conclude from the above studies that moderate to high glycemic carbohydrates produce a greater rate of glycogen replenishment in skeletal muscle.
On a side note: it is vital for the athlete in general to utilize his or her weapons properly. Yes, high GI carbs replenish faster, and they should be utilized in this situation. However, for reasons such as maintaining insulin sensitivity, low GI carbs are a powerful weapon in normal dieting. One must take advantage of times when insulin sensitivity is peaked, such as post workout. By wasting these opportunities to utilize high glycemic carbs participants are missing out on tremendous, and extremely( scientifically) backed gains! For a full review on the subject of post workout nutrition see Knowlden (2004)
When discussing high glycemic, aside from the post workout it is recommended to stick with starch-oriented foods, such as rice, and pasta's. Of course during the post workout meal, participants will utilize Knowlden(2004) and Venom(2003) methodods laid out in their papers on post workout nutrition. During periods of intense glycogen replenishment, it is wise to steer clear of fructose-saturated foods such as strawberries. It is a well-established fact, that such protocols are completely and utterly against everything an athlete wants to accomplish during these periods. In the journal of Nutrition and Metabolism Conlee et al. (1987) investigated the effectiveness of glucose and fructose feeding on restoring glycogen content after glycogen was decreased by exercise (90-min swim) or fasting –24. It was found that " After 2 h of recovery from either exercise or fasting there was no measurable glycogen repletion in red vastus lateralis muscle in response to fructose. " However, when supplying glucose there was a significant increase in glycogen storage in both the fasting and training groups. They of course concluded the obvious: " that fructose is a poor nutritional precursor for rapid glycogen restoration in muscle after exercise. " There are several reasons for the above results. One of which is that once fructose is absorbed it must first be escorted to the liver before being converted to glucose. This slows its ability to be utilized tremendously. Further, it first enhances liver stores, rather than muscular glycogen stores. Any protocol, which utilizes this for glycogen replenishment, is done so despite the vast amount of evidence against it.
Diets can be found in the appendix at the end of the article, along with the workouts.
Water Depletion Analysis
As a review water( in your body that is ) can be divided into three compartments: The Blood Plasma, the Tissue Fluid, and the intracellular fluid. The two former are known collectively as ECF or extra cellular fluid, and the latter( ICF ) is self explanatory. The tissue fluid, which surrounds a muscle, much like fat, blurs a judge’s ability to see what lies below, it is therefore an obstruction that must be dealt with. Participants will want to maximize intracellular fluid, while minimizing extra cellular fluid. As discussed, Osmolarity is a measure of how concentrated a solution is with particles. The more concentrated it is, the more water will flow to the area. By enhancing glycogen stores, you effectively increased the osmolarity of the muscle cells cytoplasm( the intracellular compartment which holds water, and dissolved nutrients etc. again, this is also known as the sarcoplasm-see anatomy of a muscle). The goal of this increase was to pull extra cellular fluid inside of the muscular compartment (recall that for every gram of carbohydrate stored an additional 2.7 grams is pulled into the ICF).
The next step is to focus on the main
solutes, which reside in the ECF, and increase water content within the
region. These two solutes are sodium (Na+), which is a cation
Understand the mechanisms which increase
sodium and water retention. This includes all hormones, and dietary
We begin our discussion with the concept of homeostasis( click - here and here for explanations ) as applied to water and sodium regulation. To be in balance, what the body consumes( i.e. what you eat ) and produces( various proteins, glycogen stores, muscle etc ), must equal what is used( burned as fuel ) and excreted( gotten rid of as waste ). The kidneys are a major player in this regard, and our focus will center on them.
Let us discuss how and why this is so.
Extra Cellular Fluid is composed of water and solutes( i.e. sodium ). By
increasing the water content, you decrease the osmolarity of the plasma,
and by increasing the solute content, you increase its osmolarity.
Materials can enter or leave this environment through three specific
It can gain or lose water or solutes through the lumen of the renal
tubules. The kidneys are an extremely complex organ. As an overview
they are composed firstly with a filtration system. Think of a coffee
grinder, and how it is able to filter water and tasty solutes, without
filtering the beans. The principle is similar. A structure known as the
How is fluid recovered? As the filtrate travels down the tubules, a majority of the filtrate is reabsorbed into the peri( above ) tubular capillaries. Recall that capillaries are blood vessels, which exchange nutrients. At no other place does this occur. Water and solutes are transported into the peritubular fluid and then they diffuse into the capillaries, which takes the materials and sends them back into general circulation (the blood via veins, returns them to the heart and they re-pumped etc. etc.).
The Proximal Tubule - Most of the water and nutrients are absorbed here. Sodium is absorbed by active transport mechanisms (pumps). Recall that this is the most numerous solute. As it is pumped out of the renal lumen (tube) into the peritubular fluid( remember directly outside of the tubules lies a tissue fluid space which contains this fluid, solutes and fluid then diffuse into the capillaries etc. ). As it is pumped, the osmolarity of the peritubular fluid increases, which attracts water! That is important! The more sodium you consume, the greater this water retention will be( if not regulated )! Additionally, remember that active transport uses energy. The membranes of the cells which line the renal tubules can actually harness a secondary energy source from the pumped sodium, and use it to transport other materials such as glucose, but that is another story. The points I want you to know are: A. Sodium reabsorption is always active (in the basolateral membrane not really important to go into detail here)! B. Sodium when absorbed creates a " concentration " gradient. Or in other words increases the osmolarity of the peritubular fluid, which attracts more water to it. C. Therefore, one method of control, will be for the kidneys to simply lessen sodium reabsorption. Just like a faucet, it can be turned off, by lowering transport proteins( a process mainly done in the distal tubules discussed latter, but you see the point ). D. The Proximal tubule is the main site of reabsorption of materials (approximately 70 percent of water and sodium are reabsorbed here, but guess what, over 180 liters of water are filtered, so there is still quite a bit left!) E. Recall that sodium is positively charged and chlorine is negatively charged. Thus it can be said that wherever sodium goes, chloride is sure to follow.
Descending and Ascending
Loops of Henle( named after
discoverer ) – King(2003) states that " The thymus is truly amazing! I
would go as far as to say it’s a totally hardcore gland. " This
statement can be applied to the descending and ascending loops of henle.
Through complex mechanisms, brought about by amazing cellular machinery,
the kidney tubules create an osmotic gradient outside of the loops, which
allows water to be absorbed on the way down, but not on the way up!
Imagine that the loop looks like this:
The down loop on the
left side of the U is the descending loop. As stated, there is a large
amount of solute outside of the U( I used the dots to diagrammatically
represent the solute. As the reader knows water always goes to areas of
higher osmolarity. Therefore as water, which has not been reabsorbed in
the proximal tubule flows down the loop it is absorbed at a high rate.
Also realize that as water is absorbed, the solute in the tubules becomes
more concentrated( what has a higher concentration of solute, a half a cup
of water with 1 gram of salt or a whole cup of water with 1 gram?
Obviously the former, the case is no different here. ). When the water
goes up the loop the process would reverse if it could. But it cannot!
The ascending loop is not permeable to water(
amazing design - we are " fearfully and wonderfully made " Psalms 139:14 
)! This allows the kidneys to concentrate Urine.
Note: I want to give you a brief note on filtration. As you know water moves from areas of higher pressure to lower pressure. The capillaries in the kidneys are the only one's that find themselves in between two arterioles. Arterioles are blood vessels, which can increase or decrease BP. Thus, fluid loss can also be regulated by how much is filtered, and this is controlled by the hormones discussed above as well.
= Anti - As in against the action of the next word
D - Diuretic - Refers to that which causes
water loss H - Hormone is self explanatory
as that is what ADH is.
- (A) Water pores called Aquaporin-2 are stored in vesicles
in a cell. These cannot bind to the distal tubule or collecting duct
unless they are stimulated to do so by ADH, and thus it is this hormone,
which is responsible for max water reabsorption. (B) The second
action is slower, and therefore is an aim in our manipulative strategies.
ADH is largely responsible for the stimulus to synthesize aquaporin-2
channels. If it is suppressed ( the hormone that is ) overall synthesis
is lowered, and in turn, even if ADH acts quickly,
it will not have as many channels to activate.
Causes For Decreases In Secretion - Acute hypervolemia inhibits vasopressin or ADH secretion (Stricker et al., 2002). Robertson et al. (1986) illustrated that ADH is inhibited by both hypervolemia and hypertension (above normal BP). Hypervolemia refers to increased blood plasma volume, which is stimulated by excessive water consumption. The reason is simple. Recall that the body must maintain homeostasis. When an excess of water is consumed, it is absorbed into the plasma, thereby expanding its volume. If the plasma has an osmolarity of 300 milliosmols, and you add low solute water, you will lower the concentration of the plasma. Now, intracellular fluid also has an osmolarity of 300 milliosmols. At this stage the extra cellular fluid has a lower osmolarity then the ICF. Water now will enter those cells and can cause them to possibly lyse( explode ). Therefore ADH decreases, which decreases water reabsorption, thereby handling the problem!
Utilizing this knowledge, during the carbohydrate depletion stage you will " water load. " This means you will drink copious amounts of water so as to lower ADH secretion. You will not have high blood pressure, because you will be Urinating copious amounts of water away, as a result of decreased ADH. Water will be progressively lowered the final 72 hours before the show. With ADH suppressed, you will not have as many aquaporin channels, and will be able to effectively shed water. I will discuss this in more detail shortly.
- This is a steroid hormone( steroid
hormones are slower acting than peptide hormones
Click Here to read about how slow acting hormones exert their actions
). As you recall, sodium is always actively transported. Aldosterone
enters into the cytoplasm and binds to cytoplasmic receptors( receptors
for aldosterone which are located inside the cell ), and stimulates the
synthesis of Na+ K+ Atpase pumps.
Causes For Increases In Secretion - If sodium is lowered then Aldosterone secretion increases. We need to discuss a specific mechanism however first. Fortunately it was already discussed by King (2003):
Renin is an enzyme released by specialized cells of the kidney into the blood. It is in response to sodium depletion and/or low blood volume. Renin converts angiotensinogen (a protein released into the blood by the liver) to angiotensin I, Angiotensin I is converted to angiotensin II by an enzyme in the veins of the lungs. Angiotensin II acts on the adrenal cortex to stimulate the release of aldosterone. Aldosterone acts on the distal tubules of the kidneys to decrease the loss of sodium ions and secondarily fluid. This has the effect of increasing blood pressure. In addition, angiotensin causes constriction of small blood vessels, which also increases blood pressure.
From the above quote, you now see that
Renin is an important factor in Aldosterone secretion. Low sodium causes
an increase in Renin. This is due to the fact that cells of the distal
tubule called the macula densa cells are sensitive to sodium
concentrations. Another factor is potassium. Aldosterone is responsible
for the secretion of Potassium. There is a condition known as
HyperKalemia in which K+ levels rise to a level above normal
concentrations. The results can actually lead to death! An increase in
aldosterone, increases secretion of K+.and therefore, an increase in K+
leads to an increase in Aldosterone secretion. Walcott et al. (1984)
states that " increases of plasma potassium directly stimulate
aldosterone secretion. This effect of potassium on aldosterone serves as a
protective mechanism against the development of hyperkalemia. "
One final point in this regard! How is it that you should sodium load? The answer is critical and here is why! Andersen et al. (2002) in the journal of Applied physiology tested two solutions with high amounts of sodium. The first solution was hyperosmotic to the ECF, and the second solution was isoosmotic. Recall that hyper refers to the fact that the solution has a higher concentration of solute than the ECF, but the iso means that it has the same concentration, even though it contains the same amount of sodium particles. The difference is simply that the former had less water than the latter. They found two key points that you must take into account!
1. " Plasma renin activity, ANG II, and aldosterone decreased very similarly in Iso and Hyper. " This was shown to be true earlier and you understand the mechanisms behind such experiments, but the next result has just as much significance.
2. " plasma vasopressin increased with Hyper " This result means that increased osmolarity increased ADH. The exact opposite of what we want! However, I have good news for you, look at this: " plasma vasopressin decreased after ISO "
The reason for the above is this: ADH
responds to low blood volume with an increased secretory rate. The
hyperosmotic solution mimics low blood volume because when you are
dehydrated, you have less fluid in the plasma, which means the
concentration of that plasma goes up. ADH also responds to this. However,
ADH also responds to increased Plasma Volume. When the participants
received an isoosmotic solution, with high levels of sodium, they
increased Na+ levels, without decreasing blood osmolarity, which in turn
killed two birds with one stone. I.E. it decreased both ADH as well as
the sodium retaining trio. Thus, when sodium loading, you will want to
drink plenty of water. Do not have salty soup, without also drinking
enough water with it.
A - Atrial - This is secreted by cells in the Atrium of the heart( where this organ receives blood ) N - Natriuretic - Causes Natriuresis or high levels of sodium secretion P - Peptide - You guessed it, ANP is a peptide. Atrial Natriuretic Peptide increases sodium excretion by " directly " decreasing sodium absorption, as well as increasing glomerular filtration rate( more Na+ is filtered out ). It literally opposes the above hormones discussed(Jespersen, 1997). It is interesting to note that ANP has been shown to decrease the secretion of both renin and aldosterone.
Causes For Increases In
Secretion - This hormone increases
for the same factors that decrease ADH, and the big three sodium retainers
In Summary, the Kidneys regulate fluid and sodium levels. Water retention which is outside the muscle cell will be lowered by loading with sodium and water, and then while hormonal levels are favorable for excretion we will decrease them.
One Final Strategy On Sodium Depletion
Above I stated that nutrients could be gained or lost via the gastrointestinal tract. Recall that the laws of diffusion state that molecules or atoms always move from areas of higher concentration to areas of lower concentration. Distilled water has no sodium in it. If you were to consume this liquid, it would obviously have less sodium in it then your ECF. Thus, sodium would diffuse into the GI tract and could be lost in this manner. This is one of the main reasons athletes, while training are recommended to consume water with a small amount of sodium in it, so as to avoid sodium depletion [ 12, 3, 25, 36, 37, 38, 56 ]. However, if the goal is sodium depletion, then this can help. When training intensely this should be avoided. And in fact, as you notice, you are not lifting heavy during replenishment days, but rather only utilizing slight posing. Your main focus should be mental as well as aesthetic( focusing intently on tan, and rest ).
Day of The Contest
On the day of the contest, you will only sip water, to keep your mouth somewhat moist, or when thirsty. Again, this will only come in the form of sips. As far as diet, you do not have to worry about losing your glycogen supercompensation effect. Dr. Harold and colleagues showed that on a moderate carbohydrate diet, stores remained supercompensated for 72 hours after the loading phase. To further my point S. F. Loy et. al tested what effect a 24 hour fast has on glycogen stores, and found that it has " no effect of muscle glycogen stores. " You will find out why when reading Joe King's article on " Metabolic Primer. " The key is to understand the difference between stored glycogen levels in the muscular and liver( as explained in that article ). This is why glycogen depleting exercise is necessary in phase one of this program. Therefore you will only want to consume 2-3 small, low sodium, moderate carbohydrate meals that day, aside from your pre-event carb. The latter should be extremely high on the GI scale. If you notice before pumping up, athletes take in a few sips of wine, jelly, or syrup. I recommend any of the various " energy gel " packets. These are packed with fast burning carbs. Consume one serving of this before pumping up and you will see a notable increase in your muscular pump and vascularity. The reason for this phenomenon is that insulin stimulates the dilation of blood vessels which brings more blood to the musculature. This is in accordance with what is known as Poiseuille's equation, which states that blood flow, or the flow of any material for that matter is proportional to vessel radius. This is actually so drastic that any increase in diameter = a four fold increase in flow. This is why such an insulin spike brings out vascularity, as literally more blood is flowing through them. Combined with the pump you receive in the " pumping room " this effect will be synergistic, as has been shown in University studies(Tipton et al.).
Contest day represents year after year of battling the most brutal of adversaries, and overcoming that which people fear most. Pain, and lots of it. Only those with an insatiable fire can withstand the forces of this sport. When it all comes down to it, those who understand the complexities of the human body will have a thousand fold advantage over those who lack the guts to obtain such a prize. This article was meant to propel you that much further ahead in your mission. However, it is only the start of a series of like articles, which will be centered around making you, the best of the best.
Yours In Sport
note the following: This is not an everyday dieting process, and is only meant to be performed for the week of the contest. Most experts agree to limit it to once or twice a year. This will be discussed in subsequent issues.
The following will provide both a sample training split, and diet for the contest week.
14 Days Out Prep
2. During this week, all the supplies for pre-contest week should be purchased. You will need a good source of sodium. The American National Research Council recommends a dietary intake of at least 500 mg / day( variations in recommendations range from 500 to 1,000 a day ). However the typical out of shape, couch potato diet utilizes in the upwards of 5, 000 mg / day. For the first three days you will consume sodium as our pizza eating, beer drinking comrades do. This means your intake will be approximately 5, 000 mg / day that are planned. Good sources come in pre-packaged soups. For example, one can of chicken broth normally contains near 1,000 milligrams of sodium. Another excellent source are the dried soup packages, and they are convenient as well. Therefore I would recommend salting your food, and consuming at least 4, 000 mg / day of sodium from soup or pre-packaged soup powder. Simply mix it in water and drink, in three to four servings throughout the day, at about 1, 000 mg a pop. The soup needs to be relatively carb free of course. And as the studies above indicate, you must drink copious amounts of water with each salty serving you drink. Table salt contains approximately 40 percent sodium, and can be measured in grams. 1 gram of table salt, therefore contains 400 mg of sodium.
3. Purchase several gallons of distilled water. I prefer at least a 10 gallon supply, for good measure.
4. You will want to purchase flax seed oil as well as safflower oil. Take a jar and pour one cup of flax in it and one cup of safflower in it so that they mix. This will give you the proper amount of EFA's needed. Or you can purchase a pre-made EFA combo.
5. I prefer to control my macros on this diet. Purchase lean turkey meat, and skinless chicken breast. The meat should not be pre-seasoned, as this is high in sodium. When carbo-loading, and sodium depleting you will want to consume very low Na meals. No salt can be added, and no pre-salted food can be eaten.
6. I prefer cream of wheat, potatoes( any form ), brown rice, and wheat pasta for the carb up. On the PW shake, you will utilize recommendations from Mr. Knowlden and Venom. Thus, you will be required to have both dextrose as well as maltodextrin in your house.
7. Purchase the " energy gel " for the contest, tanning oil, etc before Showtime. Also pre-plan your routine to maximize a pump for the day of the contest.
Sample Diet For Carb Depletion
Saturday - Carbs Should be .5 grams per pound of bodyweight this day, and should come from " resistant " starches, such as oatmeal, legumes, vegetables etc. The following meal plan is for a 200 pound BB. Sodium loading will begin today, via two cups of soup or dried soup powder equaling approximately 2, 000 mg of sodium, additionally all meat dishes should be salted. This should amount to at least 3, 000 to 3, 500 mg of sodium easily for the day. You will drink 32 cups of water today, so be prepared! As stated, it must be distilled.
Note: 100 grams of carbs will be spread over Four meals, thus you will consume 25 grams per meal, with the remaining two consisting of protein and flax / safflower mixture.
Breakfast: Oatmeal, spoonful of flax / safflower mixture and 50 grams of whey protein. - Four cups of water
Salt snack - Consume 1, 000 milligrams of sodium via low carb high sodium soup. Consume four cups of water aside from the water used to make the soup.
While Training Four Cups of water, with a small sprinkle of sodium should be consumed so as not to deplete sodium.
PW Shake( taken after training of course ) - You will utilize a shake that in no way replenishes glycogen stores. This is the one time I would recommend such an anti-progress meal. Whey Protein, flax / safflower mixture, and oatmeal. This is extremely conducive to depletion. Three cups of water.
Meal Three: Skinless Chicken, leafy green salad with broccoli and the safflower mixture again. Three cups of water
Salt snack: Consume 1, 000 milligrams of sodium via low carb high sodium soup. Consume four cups of water aside from the water used to make the soup.
Meal Four: Whey and one to two spoonfuls of flax / safflower mixture and Three cups of water
Meal Five: repeat meal four but with four cups of water
Meal Six: Repeat meal three
Water intake will equal 32 cups today.
Sunday: Repeat the afore mentioned day, but lower carbs to .4 grams per pound of bodyweight
Monday: Repeat the afore mentioned day, but lower carbs to .25 grams per pound of bodyweight and add one sodium spike. PW will be carbless here.
Tuesday: repeat Monday's regimen, but add 1 one sodium spike
Sample Carb Up Diet
Carbs will equal .5 grams per pound of bodyweight, per meal! These will consist of moderate to high glycemic foodstuffs. I wrote what I preferred above. You will eliminate all food which is high in sodium, and you will eliminate all seasonings which contain salt( I prefer all seasonings eliminated all together ). Water will be tapered back to 24 cups, each of which will be consumed between meals. This is so as to keep osmolarity low, so as to draw sodium out of the ECF and into the digestive tract for elimination.
After training consume the post workout meal as Old School describes! You
should dilute the solution as Venom describes. The rest of your water
will be consumed separate from your meals for reasons already stated. If
you consume four cups of water PW, the remaining
Between Meal - four cups water
Meal Two: Baked Sweet Potato, Skinless broiled chicken, and Brown Rice
- four cups water
Between Meal - four cups water
Meal Four: Plain Pasta, and diced Chicken
Between Meal - four cups water
Meal Five: Rice and Lean Baked Turkey. Again, it must be fresh and cannot be pre-prepared by the store! You are to limit sodium!
Between Meal - four cups water
Meal Six: Repeat meal three
As stated, .5 grams of carbs per pound of bodyweight, per meal!
Thursday: Repeat The former day, except you will not be training today. Therefore no PW. Replace your first meal with cream of wheat etc.
Water is to be lowered to 10 total cups
Friday: Repeat the former day, but limit water to 4 cups.
Eat very small snacks to keep energy even. You only want to maintain stores, which is relatively easy. Water should only be utilized to keep the mouth from being to dry. It should be very limited. Follow above instructions on energy gel before pumping up.
After The Contest
You have your own ritual I'm sure, and you should enjoy what you have earned!
Sample Seven Day Workout Schedule
During contest week the full focus must
be on the obvious: " The Contest. " Too many athletes blow it by treating
this week as if it were no different from others. This is one of the main
reasons why they lose. They get stressed out, the last few days due to
horrible prep, catabolic hormones which are counter to glycogen
supercompensation mount up, their poses don't flow on stage, and the crowd
can sense their tension.
Afternoon Session - Posing For 30 minutes straight
Here the goal is to begin depleting each body part. You will alternate body parts here during the posing section. This means poses should go like so: Emphasis on Biceps - Hold Pose for 30 seconds, then move onto Back for 30 seconds, then quads and tibialis for 30, followed by pecs ect. Your goal is to flush each body part with blood by the end of the 30 minutes. The goal is to not only begin depletion but also to strengthen your mind muscle connection before the show.
Night Session - 30 minutes dedicated to Your routine. This means working on choreography, flowing to the music etc. You should have plenty of time to perform your whole routine several times here. Work on tensing the whole body. In other words, when performing a double biceps pose, be aware that your quads are also flexed and look in peak condition. That is the difficulty in posing, you must bring the whole body under your control, much like a form of martial arts.
Note: you may also train in the morning, and evening, rather than afternoon / night.
Sunday - Your entire body will be worked today, with legs in the morning and upper body at night.
Note that 65 percent of your one rep maximum should be enough to deplete the FT IIb fibers . Explosive repetitions will also deplete these fibers, and also note that a bit higher repetitions will increasingly recruit muscle fibers as the set continues. Interestingly studies indicate that as low as 30 percent 1 rep maximum variations can actually deplete fast twitch IIa fibers, but do little for IIb fibers in a lower repetition range. The latter will yield very little micro trauma, and I would not go above the former as it should be sufficient for depletion. I have mixed a combination of high rep as well as intense posing work for the ST fibers, and explosive work to deplete the FT IIa and b fibers. We are also keeping micro trauma low, and I must emphasize that you should not emphasize the eccentric portion of the repetition. Many athletes prefer to have their partner take the eccentric portion of the rep during this phase.
Phase 1: You will perform 3 sets of 25 repetitions on no weight, feet wide out, toes pointed at 45 degree angle squats, a bit lower then parallel. Reps should be rhythmic, and you should spend little time on the eccentric portion of the rep. Finish this squatting session with two, timed sets of 30 seconds a piece, in which you explode as if sprinting each rep. This is an excellent way to deplete glycogen stores in FT muscle fibers, with little microtrauma.
Between sets flex your lower body for 60 seconds and then repeat the next set
Phase Two: Perform 5 sets on the leg extension with extremely light weight. I.E. only 25 pounds, nothing overly taxing.
reps: 40, 35, 30, 25, 20 - Flex between sets
Phase Three: Perform 3 sets of 20 repetitions of standing calf raises supersetted with reverse calf raises. ( done with bodyweight ). Perform 2 sets of 12 repetitions done very explosively. The first three however are rhythmic and do not emphasize the eccentric ever!
Between sets flex quads, hamstrings and calves. Try and tie them together. For example, begin with a flexation of the thighs which ripples down to the calf in a dramatic fashion. Be spontaneous and have fun.
Phase Four: 3 sets of 50 crunches, 3 sets of 25 alternating crunches, three sets of 20 reps on leg lifts. The reps should be easy, and fluent for the first two sets, and explosive and quick for the last set.
Phase Five: Practice routine for 15-30 minutes
Phase One: Three sets of wide grip lat pulldowns at 25 repetitions a peace, the first two are rythmic and the last is explosive for 30 seconds to deplete FT fibers. Use a very light weight, and do not focus on eccentric. Follow this with three sets of close grip pulldowns, same protocol.
Flex your back between sets
Phase Two: One arm dumbbell Rows at 20, 18, 15 reps a piece for 3 sets
Only rest as your switch the arm being worked
Phase Three: Three sets of 25 pushups performed explosively. This should be easy, but if not then 3 sets of 20 barbell bench presses.
Flex your back between sets
Phase Four: Incline dumbbell bench press at 30, 20, and 15 reps respectively, first two rythmic, last explosive, do not emphasize the eccentric! And yes, I am drilling this one. Its vital for your success.
Phase Five: Close Grip Upright rows 3 xs 15, 12, 20 repetitions -rhythmic
Phase Six: Superset easy curl bar curls with triceps cable press downs at 5 total sets for 40, 35, 30, 25, and 20 repetitions each respectively.
flex between sets
Phase Seven: 50 light weight wrist curls supersetted with the same number of reverse wrist curls
Practice your routine for 15 minutes
Afternoon Session - Flex body part being worked between sets
Phase One: Boot strappers for 5 xs 50 repetitions
Phase Two: Leg Press: Feet close on the pad, and far down, as well as pointing forward. You should bring legs as far back as possible to create separation between all four heads of the quads. 5 sets of 40, 30, 20, 15, and 10 repetitions respectively
Phase Three: Seated calf raises ( 3 Xs 40 ) supersetted with seated plate raises ( 3 xs 40 )
Phase four: Scissors for the lower abs 3 xs 50 and one set of 50 straight crunches( performed quick )
Phase Five: Side laterals supersetted with dumbell shrugs four 4 sets of 20, 15, 12, 10 for side laterals and 40, 35, 30, and 25 repetitions a piece for shrugs respectively
Phase Five: Work on routine for 15 minutes
Night Session - Flex body part being worked between sets
Phase One: Five sets of dumbell flys X's 40, 30, 20, 15, 12 repetitions
Phase Two: Five sets of Incline barbell bench - 60 percent max, two sets of explosive reps, and I would reccomend having your partner take the eccentric portion of the rep. ( 18, 15 ) respectively
Phase Three: Bent Over rows supersetted with bodybuilding Deadlifts 20 a piece for 5 total sets - Again, Explosive on the last two sets for FT fibers, rhythmic on the first two.
Phase Four: Three sets of straight cable pull downs supersetted with straight arm dumbbell pullovers at 25 repetitions a peace
Phase Five: Five sets of cable biceps curls at 12 reps a peace supersetted with Five sets of French Presses. Perform quickly, to deplete FT fibers
Phase Six: Flex Upper Body, intensely for 15 minutes
Repeat Day One, except on Back, replace one arm dumbbell rows with five sets of 50 repetitions on good mornings to tighten the erectors, should be done lightly.
This is your last session and you will perform it in the morning and sleep the rest of the day! It is meant to hit the entire body.
Phase One: Two sets of on no weight, feet wide out, toes pointed at 45 degree angle squats, a bit lower then parallel. The first set of explosive for 30 seconds, and the second is rhythmic for 50 reps. Reps should be rhythmic for leg extensions, and you should spend little time on the eccentric portion of the rep. Superset this with 2 sets of leg extensions
Phase Two: Two sets of 40 reps of hamstring work
Phase Three: Three Sets of Lat Pulldowns supersetted with Dumbbell Flat Bench at 20 reps a piece
Phase Four: Two sets of upright rows supersetted with side laterals 20 reps a piece first set, and 15 a piece second
Phase Five: Seated dumbbell curls supersetted with Rope pressdowns at 40, 30, 20, 10 repetitions a piece
Phase Five: 50 crunches supersetted with 50 leg lifts
Down Your Post Workout Meal and get ready to carb up! You will rest the entire day after this
Tear the stage up!
65. Halse R, Bonavaud SM, Armstrong JL, McCormack JG, Yeaman SJ
Control of glycogen synthesis by glucose, glycogen, and insulin in
cultured human muscle cells.