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  #11  
Old 02-24-2006, 11:42 PM
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Default Re: Research Question of the Week: Exercise Immunology

Here is some evidence supporting that J-curve and open window hypothesis.

Nieman et al. (1990, b) investigated the incidence of URTI in a group of 2,311 marathon runners who varied widely in running ability and training habits. Within weeks following the Los Angeles marathon race, results indicated that 12.9% of the marathon runners reported sicknesses compared to only 2.2% of control runners who did not participate in the marathon. Further, runners training in the 96 KM/week + races doubled their chance of sickness compared to runners who trained for less than 32 KM/week. Rohde, Maclean, and Pedersen (1998) had healthy male participants perform 3 bouts of bicycle exercise lasting 60, 45, and 30 minutes at 75% VO2 max, respectively, separated by 2 hours of rest. Results indicated that lymphocyte (cells vital for immune function) concentrations declined 2 hours after each bout of exercise, and lymphokine activated killer (LAK; another vital component of the immune system) declined 2 hours after the third workout.

Overtraining can briefly be defined as a chronic decrease in performance over time. It is associated with many adverse effects including excess fatigue, sleep disturbances, decreased appetite, prolonged recovery, and suppressed immune function (Lucille & Smith 2004). The aforementioned studies are consistent with investigations on Overtraining Syndrome (OTS), which indicate that over trained athletes are more susceptible to colds, allergies, increased incidences of infections, and swollen lymph glands (Fry, Norton, & Keast, 1991; Nieman & Pederson, 1999).

Davis et al. (2004) investigated the effects of short term moderate exercise on URTI in mice. Participants exercised 1 hour per day at 68-78% of their VO2 max for 6 consecutive days. Results indicated that moderate exercise can decrease the susceptibility to an induced respiratory infection in mice. Similarly, Matthews et al. (2002) found that moderate physical activity was associated with a 20-30% reduction in annual risk of URTI in comparison to predominantly non-athletic adults.

A review of the literature by Mackinnon (1999) found various important implications. In general, the results of his review indicated that moderate amounts of exercise was associated with a transient increase in immune function, which then returns to baseline within a few hours. However, strenuous exercise results in a transient decline in immune function, which may last for several hours into recovery. Collectively, these results seem to support the J-curve and open window hypothesis.

I'll discuss some mechanisms next.
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Old 02-25-2006, 12:54 AM
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Default Re: Research Question of the Week: Exercise Immunology

WOW, this is all very interesting.
So, dehydration decreases immune function.
dehydration increases cortisol
cortisol decreases immune function

Extreme exercise increases dehydration and cortisol. There by making your body more suseptible to sickness.

But moderate exercise, is usually followed by rehydration, and typically some sort of nutrition that decreases cortisol again. There by knocking back the affect both have on immune function.

This is all very cool.
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Old 02-26-2006, 05:38 PM
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Default Re: Research Question of the Week: Exercise Immunology

Here are some mechanisms for acute immune responses to exercise.

The Cortisol & Catecholamine Hypothesis

Evidence suggests that there is a close interaction between the immune, endocrine, and nervous systems. These interactions are demonstrated by the presence of receptors for endocrine hormones in immune and nervous system structures (Madden & Felten, 1995), and the contact between the lymphoid gland and nervous system (Rabin, Moyna, Kusnecov, Zhoud, and Shur, 1996). Exercise results in an increase in sympathetic tone, and various hormones including catecholamines, growth hormone, -endorphins, testosterone, estrogen, and cortisol (Bente, Pedersen & Laurie, 2000). In this context, it has been suggested that the neuro-hormonal changes induced by exercised are what mediates the immune system alterations caused by physical activity. The hormones most commonly implicated for actions on the immune system are catecholamines and cortisol; therefore, this next section will discuss the impact of these two hormones on immune function.

The hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine, collectively referred to as catecholamines, are released rapidly by the sympathetic nervous system, and with a delay by the adrenal medulla in response to exercise; further, they are increased linearly and exponentially with exercise intensity and duration (Kjaer & Dela, 1996). The receptors for these hormones are called adrenergic receptors (which can be subdivided into beta and alpha adrenergic receptors), and they appear to be plentiful on various immune cells (Madden & Felten, 1995), indicating that immune cells can be modulated by catecholamines. In light of this, many have suggested that catecholamines may be responsible for the exercise induced increase in immune function. This is supported by several experimental findings. First, epinephrine injections mimic the exercise induced increase in natural killer cells and lymphokine activated killer (Kappel et al., 1991); second, beta-adrenergic receptors are up regulated on natural killer cells during exercise (Maisel et al. 1990); and third, administrating beta-adrenergic antagonists eliminates lymphocytosis (white blood cell generation) during exercise, as well as natural killer cell cytosis (Klokker et al., 1997). Lastly, catecholamines rapidly decline after exercise, dissipating to baseline levels approximately 15 minutes upon cessation of exercise (Bush et al., 1999). The implications of this will be discussed shortly.

Cortisol is the primary glucocorticoid secreted from the zona fasciculate (zone 2) of the adrenal cortex (Inouye, 2006). Davies and Few (1973) examined the effect of duration and intensity on plasma cortisol levels. It was found that as duration and intensity increased, cortisol increased. However, they found what appeared to be a threshold for cortisol secretion at 60 % V02 max intensity. Therefore at lower intensities cortisol is primarily controlled by metabolic need. In this context, Sotsky, Shilo, and Shamoon (1989) investigated the effect of hypoglycemia on moderate intensity exercise, below 60 V02 max over 50 minutes of cycling in participants with normal blood glucose levels of 87 mg / dl, and in participants with low blood glucose levels of 59 mg / dl. No significant difference in cortisol levels were found in the normal glucose condition, while a 400 % increase (!) was found in the low glucose condition. Therefore it appears that under normal dieting conditions, cortisol secretion may not significantly rise during an hour of low intensity exercise. Lastly, cortisol is a slow acting hormone, with its effects taking place within 2 hours or longer after exercise (Bente, Pedersen & Laurie, 2000).

Cortisol shifts substrates away from carbohydrates, towards fats and proteins. One mechanism of action is stimulation of gluconeogenesis, typically of proteins. The implications of this on immune function is that antibodies and white blood cells are proteins, and are therefore, degraded by cortisol. In this context, it has been demonstrated cortisol administration stimulates lymphocytopenia, monocytopenia, and eosinopenia, (“penia” refers to a decrease in these cells, all of which are all vital to immune function), with a peak decline 4 hours after administration (Rabin et al., 1996).

Collectively, this has lead to the suggestion that catecholamines are responsible for lymphocytosis seen during and immediately after exercise; and cortisol is responsible for the decline in immune function seen for several hours after strenuous exercise. These results could be best explained by the fitness fatigue model—the fitness effects of exercise are most potently displayed during and immediately after exercise; however, once the fitness effects wear off, the fatigue effects set in, and degrade immune function.
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Old 02-26-2006, 11:50 PM
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Default Re: Research Question of the Week: Exercise Immunology

im not completly sure what the question is...but ill give it a go

i think it sorta makes sence, for exersiing to increase your immune system, because it makes your blood pump, which makes nutrients in your body travel ALOT faster, which also alows all the white blood cells, and evertyhing else, be made at a faster, more efficent rate...and the obvious reason...hours you spend in that weight room...are hours ur not walking around sick people!

but as a side note, i havent gotten sick sence i started doing exersice in general, back before last summers f/b conditiong...id get sick atleast twice a month!, and now, i havent gotten sick in over 3/4 of a year
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Old 02-28-2006, 02:19 AM
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Default Re: Research Question of the Week: Exercise Immunology

That makes a lot of sense, Mavrick. Really good theory.

You guys have given me some great ideas on where to investigate. Keep up the awesome discussion. [img]/forum/images/graemlins/laugh.gif[/img]

Anyway, here is another theory to consider on long term negative effects on immune function from exercise.

The Cytokine Hypothesis

A chronic decline in the immune system as a result of overtraining has been commonly explained by the Cytokine Hypothesis (Plowman and Smith, 2003). This suggests that prolonged high volume training results in damage to muscle and joints, and triggers an inflammatory response, which initiates a massive release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Cytokines at moderate levels primarily causes local inflammation of muscle tissues; however, in excess, it can cause systemic inflammation of the nervous system, and endocrine system, explaining many of the side effects seen during overtraining such as depression, mood changes, and suppressed immune function (Plowman and Smith, 2003). Though more experiments are needed to substantiate this, evidence seems to lend credence to this hypothesis (Lucille & Smith 2004). For instance, one study found that after a marathon race, TNF- and IL- (two types of inflammatory cytokines) increased 2-fold, while IL-6 (another inflammatory cytokine) increased 50 fold (Ostrowski, Rohde, Zacho, and Pedersen, 1998). And several recent studies have found that various cytokines are prevalent in the plasma during and after exercise (Ostrowski, Rohde, Schjerling, and Pedersen, 1999; Ostrowski, Hermann, Bangash, Schjerling, Nielsen, and Pedersen, 1999). This hypothesis may be best explained by the General Adaptation Theory. If the stimulus is continuous then the individual will plateau or experience maladaptation (stage of exhaustion). The maladaptation according to Seyle reflected similar symptoms to the Alarm reaction stage, and was the result of a depletion of the organisms defense mechanisms caused by chronic stress.
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Matthew 7:20
And Jesus said unto them, Because of your unbelief: for verily I say unto you, If ye have faith as a grain of mustard seed, ye shall say unto this mountain, Remove hence to yonder place; and it shall remove; and nothing shall be impossible unto you.
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Old 02-28-2006, 02:33 AM
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Default Re: Research Question of the Week: Exercise Immunology

I don't have any science to share, but just a few first hand experiences from the last week.

I came down with Strept throat AGAIN (the weather has been very mild this winter so there has been tons of sickness) about a week and a half ago. A few days into it, I went to the gym and did a fairly hardcore workout. It only made the symptoms worse. Two days after that, I did stretching, core strengthening, and relaxation for about 45 minutes. I felt better after I finished and it also gave me the desire to eat healthier (I have a hard time eating healthy when I am sick). So I did feel better after some movement and for consuming some healthy foods.

The sickness held on for a few more days, and I decided to just rest, drink lots of tea, water and vitamin C. I began to feel better 4 days ago. So I went to the gym and did a light full body workout. I felt my symptions quickly improve the day after. I took one day off, then went to train back and bi's. I went fairly hardcore, but concentrated on isolation exercises. Since then I have felt much better! I made it a point to get over 10 hours of sleep both last night and the night before and I think that helped a ton! Tonight I trained legs, so we shall see how I feel in the morning. (I can feel a sore throat coming on right now)

My experience has been that if I feel a cold coming on, or I am only mildly sick, a cardio session seems to help me get healthy quicker. Hardcore weightlifting totally racks my immune system and I need tons of sleep, vitamin C, glutamine, green tea and antioxidants to combat it!
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Old 02-28-2006, 06:25 PM
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Default Re: Research Question of the Week: Exercise Immunology

excellent article venom. This is an example of why Omega 3's are so important in our diet, because they help decrease that inflammatory response, so it would be interesting to see the effect omega 3 supplementation would have on this effect
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Old 03-03-2006, 05:06 PM
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Default Re: Research Question of the Week: Exercise Immunology

I'm wondering about effects on alergic response.
Tuesday was very nice, and we went out and hit some trails on our mountain bikes.
That night my nose stuffed up, and eyes got dry and itchy.
I've been lifting hard all week, and I'm still suffering from the symptoms.

Now I can't tell if I'm really tired, or if it's just the dry eyes making me feel tired. Either way I feel like crap from the neck up. Rest of my body seems fine though...nice and sore!! [img]/forum/images/graemlins/smile.gif[/img]
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Old 03-04-2006, 09:43 PM
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Default Re: Research Question of the Week: Exercise Immunology

Great post, Trillian. Right now, based on the evidence, I am inclined to agree with your findings. It appears insane workouts will not really help your immune function. I still have a lot more to learn about this topic, but I could only advise moderate intensity workouts right now for enhancing the immune system. What you did was great.
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Matthew 7:20
And Jesus said unto them, Because of your unbelief: for verily I say unto you, If ye have faith as a grain of mustard seed, ye shall say unto this mountain, Remove hence to yonder place; and it shall remove; and nothing shall be impossible unto you.
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Old 03-04-2006, 09:47 PM
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Default Re: Research Question of the Week: Exercise Immunology

[ QUOTE ]

I'm wondering about effects on alergic response.
Tuesday was very nice, and we went out and hit some trails on our mountain bikes.
That night my nose stuffed up, and eyes got dry and itchy.
I've been lifting hard all week, and I'm still suffering from the symptoms.

Now I can't tell if I'm really tired, or if it's just the dry eyes making me feel tired. Either way I feel like crap from the neck up. Rest of my body seems fine though...nice and sore!!

[/ QUOTE ]

I have not read much on that. An allergic reaction is really a heightened immune response. I would have to look into that more.

I did, however, discuss something interesting with Dr. Simmons (an expert in stress management) the other day about allergic reactions.

Chronic stress may actually make people hypersensitive to allergies so that you begin to bronchodialate for instance, to less and less pollen, more often.
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Matthew 7:20
And Jesus said unto them, Because of your unbelief: for verily I say unto you, If ye have faith as a grain of mustard seed, ye shall say unto this mountain, Remove hence to yonder place; and it shall remove; and nothing shall be impossible unto you.
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