Research Initiative of the Week: The Effect of Self Efficacy and Verbal Persuasion on Performance - ABCbodybuilding

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Old 12-08-2005, 02:44 AM
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Default Research Initiative of the Week: The Effect of Self Efficacy and Verbal Persuasion on Performance



There is no fuss and fanfare about Bannister. When he was asked to explain that first four minute mile—and the art of record breaking—he answered with original directness: “it’s the ability to take more out of yourself than you’ve got” Text by Gerald Holland Issue Date: January 3, 1955.

It was thought to be the impossible—breaking the 4 minute barrier.

And then, there was Roger Bannister.

In the year 1954, this legend made history, breaking the 4 minute mile!

But in a coupe of weeks, several other athletes broke the same record! What caused this dramatic increase in performance in so many athletes? In a phrase, Self Efficacy.

Self efficacy can be defined as a situation specific self confidence. Studies have found that enhanced self efficacy can increase performance. Therefore, methods to improve self efficacy have been investigated extensively in the literature.

Bandura suggested that there were 4 sources of self efficacy, but this has now been modified to 6 primary sources.

Here is a diagram:

here.

I want to particularly focus in on verbal persuasion.

Verbal persuasion has been identified as an effective technique to enhance self efficacy (Brown, 2003). Verbal persuasion involves positively influencing an individual to accomplish a task through verbal speech or self persuasion (Brown, 2003). It can be provided from an outside source such as a coach telling an athlete “I know you can do it” or through positive self talk, such as an athlete telling him/her self “I can do this.”

Brown (2003) investigated the effectiveness of positive self talk training on self efficacy. Participants consisted of 184 undergraduate students separated into 42 teams. The experimenters used a self efficacy questionnaire to measure self efficacy, and measured performance by the amount of points scored. Participants in the experimental condition were given a 75 minute lecture on positive self talk. Participants were instructed to report times in which they used negative verbal talk, and the effects it had on performance. And also when positive verbal talk was used and the effect it had on performance. During the implementation of positive self talk, participants were first instructed to notice when they used negative self talk. Second, participants were instructed to deal with the negative self talk by asking a neutral question such as “what can we do? What skills do we have to accomplish this? What have we done in the past?” (Brown, 2003, p. 8). Lastly, participants were encouraged to use a positive statement such as stating a solution to the problem, and saying to themselves they could do it. Based on the self efficacy questionnaires, and the amount of points scored, results indicated that positive self talk significantly enhanced self efficacy and performance, above the control condition.

In a related experiment on the influence of verbal persuasion on self efficacy, James, Wise, Posner, and Walker (2004) compared the effects on bench press efficacy, of a verbal message containing specific performance feedback against one containing general statements. Participants consisted of 32 women, who did not practice on the bench press 18 months prior to the experiment. All participants performed on a vertical bench press machine for 10 repetitions, and immediately filled a bench press efficacy scale. Following this, participants were exposed to two sources of verbal persuasion, and then immediately filled the bench press efficacy scale, again. Condition one received specific performance feedback, in which they were told “those 10 repetitions you just performed with (the amount of weight each lifter used was placed here) looked easy. You looked strong and did not appear to have any problems lifting the weight. I bet you could lift more weight” (James et al., 2004, p. 27). Condition two received general performance feedback, in which they were told “I have no doubt that you have the muscular strength and ability to perform the bench press exercise. The bench press exercise is easy to learn and the machine will help you perform the exercise correctly” (James et al., 2004, p. 27). The speaker was a certified strength and conditioning coach, who had instructed weight lifters and bodybuilders, and competed in power lifting events. All participants were informed of the speaker’s qualifications. Results indicated that both verbal messages significantly raised self efficacy above the control condition; however, there was no significant difference between experimental conditions. Performance was not measured. These results suggest that both general and specific verbal persuasion messages are effective methods to enhance self efficacy.

Practical Applications

These studies can easily be applied to weight lifting.

First, let’s discuss how to use positive self talk.

If an athlete is performing a set of squats, before they go, they often may have feelings of apprehension, and tell themselves “wow that looks heavy, I hope I can do this…” this leads to enhanced anxiety, decreased self efficacy, and consequently, most commonly decreased performance. This is also known as a negative self fulfilling prophecy. This is what happened to the runners of Roger Banisters day. They let someone else’s negative expectations of their performance negatively influence them and their thought patterns. Instead, we want to utilize a positive self fulfilling prophecy.

Therefore, we should utilize the method prescribed by Brown (2003).

1.) Catch and stop negative self talk or negative verbal persuasion. This may include comments such as “man that looks heavy!” This is known as thought stopping or “parking it.” Take your negative thought and put it inside a bag and bury it. A technique Sport Psychologists use is to come up with a stop sign in their mind such as red light, and this is meant to stimulate the response of thought stopping. So whenever you come up with a negative thought, pull out your stimulus to thought stop, and stop thinking negatively.

2.) Ask a neutral question such as “what can I do? What skills do we have to accomplish this? What have I done in the past to solve this problem?”

3.) Lastly, use a positive statement such as stating a solution to the problem, and saying to yourself, "that weight is easy, I know I can get that." Also, smile, and enjoy the lift! [img]/forum/images/graemlins/grin.gif[/img]

This is also vital for your training partner to use. Your partner cannot tell you before your set “are you sure you can do that weight?” he should tell you, “that weight is easy, you can do that no problem!”

Want to know the master of positive self talk? You have no further to look than Mr. O!



"Yeah budddyyy!!! Light weight!!! Nothing but a peanut!! BOOOOOOOOOOHH!!"""

These are statements used by the champion almost before all of his sets. Anyone who has watched him knows what I am talking about. He is the master of positive self talk!

What is also amazing is that God clearly gave us instructions on how to think.

<font color="red">

Philippians 4:8
Finally, brethren, whatsoever things are true, whatsoever things are honest, whatsoever things are just, whatsoever things are pure, whatsoever things are lovely, whatsoever things are of good report; if there be any virtue, and if there be any praise, think on these things. </font>

He also gave us authority to cast our vain thoughts, such as the negative emotions described in this post:

<font color="blue"> Romans 15:6
That ye may with one mind and one mouth glorify God, even the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ. </font>

<font color="red">1 Corinthians 2:16
For who hath known the mind of the Lord, that he may instruct him? but we have the mind of Christ. </font>

So we can also apply this to our spiritual lives.

If you have a sinful thought, you can use the method prescribed by Brown (2003). Ask God to help you and replace your temptation with holy thoughts, and he will give you the power to overcome!

So if you are dealing with a temptation, say, you want to go get out to a party you know will be sinful. You should first immediately stop this evil thought in your mind.

Second, ask your self a neutral question. This may be, “is it worth it?” what can I do besides this activity that is wholesome? Etc.

Then, you could say something like quote a scripture. Or say God is good, and I know he will get me through this temptation. Then state a solution to the problem such as “I’ll go read the bible” or talk to some friends, or go out, or go exercise. Anything that distracts your from this temptation.
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Matthew 7:20
And Jesus said unto them, Because of your unbelief: for verily I say unto you, If ye have faith as a grain of mustard seed, ye shall say unto this mountain, Remove hence to yonder place; and it shall remove; and nothing shall be impossible unto you.
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Old 12-08-2005, 04:16 AM
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Default Re: Research Initiative of the Week: The Effect of Self Efficacy and Verbal Persuasion on Performance

Cool stuff Venom, I've been doing this ever since I started weights. And people thought I was crazy because I smiled during deadlifts! Now I can say "im increasing my self efficacy" hehe [img]/forum/images/graemlins/wink.gif[/img]
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Old 12-08-2005, 04:54 AM
Adam Knowlden Adam Knowlden is offline
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Default Re: Research Initiative of the Week: The Effect of Self Efficacy and Verbal Persuasion on Performance

Awesome Venom!

Indeed there are many scriptures that back up the science of positive thinking, and positive expression.

It starts with our thinking and as you said, casting out vain thoughs:

<font color="blue">Philippians 4:8
Finally, brethren, whatsoever things are true, whatsoever things are honest, whatsoever things are just, whatsoever things are pure, whatsoever things are lovely, whatsoever things are of good report; if there be any virtue, and if there be any praise, think on these things. </font>

Correct thinking will put our faith in action and cause us to believe that which is not seen.

<font color="green"> 2 Corinthians 5:7
For we walk by faith, not by sight </font>

<font color="brown"> 1Now faith is being sure of what we hope for and certain of what we do not see. 2This is what the ancients were commended for. </font>

Just like Abraham, God told him he would have a child of his own, even though it was impossible biologically.

Abraham had righteousness imputed on him because he believed God's promise:

<font color="green"> 1After these things the word of the LORD came unto Abram in a vision, saying, Fear not, Abram: I am thy shield, and thy exceeding great reward.
4And, behold, the word of the LORD came unto him, saying, This shall not be thine heir; but he that shall come forth out of thine own bowels shall be thine heir.

5And he brought him forth abroad, and said, Look now toward heaven, and tell the stars, if thou be able to number them: and he said unto him, So shall thy seed be.

6And he believed in the LORD; and he counted it to him for righteousness.
</font>

Goal setting is the process of planning a vision.

The first step to real goal setting is envisioning your vision!

A vision is something you see by faith. Faith is not some mysterious thing that you have to fast 40 days to attain.

We all have faith. You drive your car everyday, and accept by faith all the parts will work. You sat in your computer chair without checking to see if it would break first. You believed by faith it was sturdy enough to hold you up. You drank you protein shake without analyzing it for poision, and the list goes on and on. We all do things by faith daily, without doubt, because we believe things will work even if we have no idea how they will work.

God just wants us to do the same thing. We don't have to know how He works, just believe that He will do what He says.

So first envision your vision.

If you want to work with 150lb dumbbells sit down relax and envision yourself pressing the 150lbers.

If you are injured, envision yourself doing an exercise that is currently impossible due to your injury.

If you are looking to gain mass, envision yourself posing in a mirror, bigger and more muscular.

Do this every night before bed for 10 minutes.

This will confirm your ability to believe your vision.

Acting on that belief is faith. Faith is a verb!

Next, Meditate on your faith...

We all know how to meditate...if you know how to worry, you know how to meditate. However worry is just meditating on the negative! Reverse it and your mentality will be that of a champion instead of a loser.

Another thing is writing down the vision (goal setting) as Venom has been emphasizing.

<font color="green">And the Lord answered me and said, Write the vision and engrave it so plainly upon tablets that everyone who passes may be able to read it easily and quickly as he hastens by. 3For the vision is yet for an appointed time and it hastens to the end fulfillment; it will not deceive or disappoint. Though it tarry, wait earnestly for it, because it will surely come; it will not be behindhand on its appointed day. Habakkuk 2:2-3 AMP.
</font>

If we believe it and can see our goals by faith, we can achieve them!

<font color="blue"> Matthew 17:20
He replied, "Because you have so little faith. I tell you the truth, if you have faith as small as a mustard seed, you can say to this mountain, 'Move from here to there' and it will move. Nothing will be impossible for you."
</font>

<font color="red"> 13I can do all things through Christ which strengtheneth me. </font> (my favorite verse)

<font color="green"> 14If ye shall ask any thing in my name, I will do it. </font>
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Old 12-08-2005, 05:27 AM
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Default Re: Research Initiative of the Week: The Effect of Self Efficacy and Verbal Persuasion on Performance

Thanks for your post, Adam!

[ QUOTE ]
You drank you protein shake without analyzing it for poision

[/ QUOTE ]

HAHA! It cracked me up how you mixed drinking a protein shake into a serious discussion. [img]/forum/images/graemlins/grin.gif[/img]

[ QUOTE ]

If you want to work with 150lb dumbbells sit down relax and envision yourself pressing the 150lbers.

[/ QUOTE ]

Ah, we are taking about imagery, now, in the form of motivational general-mastery imagery, among other types that you were discussing. I know a little something about that, too. I might post about that for my next research initiative of the week. [img]/forum/images/graemlins/wink.gif[/img]
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Matthew 7:20
And Jesus said unto them, Because of your unbelief: for verily I say unto you, If ye have faith as a grain of mustard seed, ye shall say unto this mountain, Remove hence to yonder place; and it shall remove; and nothing shall be impossible unto you.
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Old 12-09-2005, 01:48 AM
Adam Knowlden Adam Knowlden is offline
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Default Re: Research Initiative of the Week: The Effect of Self Efficacy and Verbal Persuasion on Performance

[ QUOTE ]
Ah, we are taking about imagery, now, in the form of motivational general-mastery imagery, among other types that you were discussing.

[/ QUOTE ]

Yep! [img]/forum/images/graemlins/grin.gif[/img]

We walk by faith, not by sight.

The key is how to obtain that faith and direct and focus it toward a goal that is not currently manifested.

The answer is first we need a vision, which is spawned by our imagination! God’s gift of imagination is very powerful stuff. It’s the direct reflection of what’s in our heart!

<font color="red"> 6And the Lord said, Behold, they are one people and they have all one language; and this is only the beginning of what they will do, and now nothing they have imagined they can do will be impossible for them.
</font>

Our imagination is the tool God gave us to reveal what is in our heart. If our heart is pure, we will work to glorify God, and put our imagination to righteous use and God can use it to plant visions in our heart. If we are corrupt, well Christ said it best:

<font color="red"> 35A good man out of the good treasure of the heart bringeth forth good things: and an evil man out of the evil treasure bringeth forth evil things.
</font>

<font color="blue">18But those things which proceed out of the mouth come forth from the heart; and they defile the man.

19For out of the heart proceed evil thoughts, murders, adulteries, fornications, thefts, false witness, blasphemies:

20These are the things which defile a man: but to eat with unwashen hands defileth not a man.
</font>

This is so powerful, Christ said we will be judged on our imagination (a reflection of our heart) and whether we are using this gift for God's glory or to sin!

<font color="red"> 27Ye have heard that it was said by them of old time, Thou shalt not commit adultery:

28But I say unto you, That whosoever looketh on a woman to lust after her hath committed adultery with her already in his heart
</font>

Here Christ says using your God given imagination to lust is as wicked to God as actually committing the act! It is supposed to be used to sow faith in your heart, not wicked intents.

Why? Because the person is using their imagination, which reflects from the intent of their heart.

Of course, man used his imagination foolishly at the tower of Babel (Genesis 11) and did not obey God to multiply the face of the earth, but instead began to get into idolatry.

But it is clear that God gave us an imagination so we could plant a vision in our heart, then use the word of God to water that vision. The water is faith.

<font color="blue"> Faith comes by hearing and hearing by the Word of God. </font>

We believe what God said, like we believe the protein shake is doing its job even though we just take the manufaturer's word for it that the ingredients listed are what is in the product.

Same with God's Word.

We believe we are healed, just like we believe a serving of Champion Nutrition whey has 2.86 grams of L-Lecine in it. We believe that because its written on the label, not because we personally went to the lab and understand the entire process of creating whey and measured everything ourselves, just because we trust the manufacturer and take him at his written word the package is true.

That written label on the bucket is the source of our faith in the protein powder.

We ingest that protein to water a vision of being huge, muscular bodybuilders.

It’s sad because we believe a bucket of protein with no question, but doubt God’s Word all the time and murmur against Him. Pretty funny and yet sad. God’s mercy is huge to overlook that kind of stuff.

The thing is we aren’t left in the dark about whether our vision is being realized. We see the results the protein is having on us, so it’s not a blind faith. Same with faith in God, the results are manifested constantly, to reaffirm God’s work.

A way to see our faith progressing is to write down our vision and the steps to achieving the vision, we call this a goal sheet. Which can be divided up into short and long term. You did an awesome job of this in your split. We can track the progress of the vision, to strengthen our belief in the vision more and more, and it also helps our mind not be able to play tricks on us and start doubting.

That is one of the main reasons God created memory, is so we could recall all the times He has delivered us so the next time we are tested, so we can continue to go from glory to glory instead of going around the same mountain like Israel did for 40 years.

Its main function is to memorize God’s word and to recall the times God has delivered us in the past, that is a very powerful tool to laying up treasure in heaven. But again, many instead chose to fill their mind with junk and corrupt it. It can get so corrupted that God doesn’t strive with these folks anymore and gives them over to a reprobate mind, to work that which is unseemly.

For example stuffing your mind with corrupt music, like secular rap stars whom glorify their lives of fornication, rape, drugs, pillage and murder.

Just like Romans 1 says though that people know corrupt individuals like that are guilty unto death, yet they not only support it (to the point they actually pay to listen to it) they take pleasure and glory with them in their sin. They become reprobate.

We can do either or, fill it with words of faith and the mind of Christ, or lusts of this world and lusts of our flesh.

God's Word tells us how to do everything, from laying up eternal treasure, to living free from sin's curse and having eternal life, to building freaky muscles. God's forumals for success are universal, science just backs it up.

God's faith formulas can be used for evil or good. But as Solomon said,

<font color="red"> Proverbs 10:2
Treasures of wickedness profit nothing: but righteousness delivereth from death. </font>

We can have faith in being negative and we can live a defeated sin filled life. We can use our imagination to stay injured or sick and defeated. We can even use it to fulfill wicked intents, like we see happen daily in the news…Wicked men using their imagination to fulfill evil deeds of murder, terrorism, and rape.

We can believe in that and walk in that life by faith in a negative mindset and lay up treasures of wrath for the day of wrath as Paul preached.

It’s our choice, that is the key factor. [img]/forum/images/graemlins/cool.gif[/img]

Ok, I’m done preaching. [img]/forum/images/graemlins/grin.gif[/img]
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Old 12-09-2005, 03:10 AM
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Default Re: Research Initiative of the Week: The Effect of Self Efficacy and Verbal Persuasion on Performance

That was a great post, Adam.

Charles Staley says the mind is a battle ground, and he is right. It is very difficult to control our thoughts, and imaginations. Doing so is a constant battle for all Christians. It can be even more difficult during times of weakness, such as being tired—we tend to let our guard down. Which is another reason why we should be careful to get enough sleep, eat right, etc. But using scripture and also psychological skills helps immensely.

A lot of people take psychological skills for granted though. Many people think it is just a quick fix, or cannot be practiced, or only for certain people. But gaining psychological skills takes just as much work as gaining physiological skills. Definitely something I am going to be discussing more in the future.
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Matthew 7:20
And Jesus said unto them, Because of your unbelief: for verily I say unto you, If ye have faith as a grain of mustard seed, ye shall say unto this mountain, Remove hence to yonder place; and it shall remove; and nothing shall be impossible unto you.
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Old 12-09-2005, 05:50 PM
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Default Re: Research Initiative of the Week: The Effect of Self Efficacy and Verbal Persuasion on Performance

I think this is a very interesting topic. And is one I have thought about and practiced with many times.

I this also extends to every aspect of life.
For me it's about focus and expectations.

If I focus on negative things, that's all I see/experience.
If I expect things to go badly, guess what, they do.

But on the other hand, I focus on and expect the postive/best then that's what I encounter.

I firmly believe my beliefs influence my reality. Sure, reality can influence my beliefs as well, but for me, it seems my mind has a greater influence on what I experience than anything.

Does this make sense to anyone?
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Old 12-09-2005, 05:56 PM
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Default Re: Research Initiative of the Week: The Effect of Self Efficacy and Verbal Persuasion on Performance

Very nice stuff Venom. so true about the negative talk, I've found everytime some ones metions how heavy the weight is, it actually feels heavier. [img]/forum/images/graemlins/crazy.gif[/img]
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Old 12-13-2005, 03:34 PM
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Default Re: Research Initiative of the Week: The Effect of Self Efficacy and Verbal Persuasion on Performance

In a bodybuilding related story, Skip LaCour never thought he could get shredded glutes until he heard of another natural bodybuilder who had achieved that condition. Now, he never even saw this bodybuilder or learned his name, but simply believing that it was possible allowed him to go to the next level. Now he doesn't even consider himself ready for a show without shredded glutes.

I'm getting to be all about positive thinking these days.
As Earl Nightingale said, "We become what we think about." In his audio tape he quotes a doctor who said, "If you think in positive terms you achieve positive results." I'm believing this more and more. Right now I am making my way through Personal Power II.

You know what has really helped my workouts out? I pray before every set, either in my mind or under my breath. I usually cross my heart right before starting the set. I pray that God will keep me safe, focused, allow me to take the set to absolute failure, and keep the stimulation in the intended muscle group. I offer my hard work to the Lord and pray that I bring him Glory through my body and effot. Mentally it focuses me and I feel safer and more confident after a short talk with God.
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Old 12-13-2005, 07:29 PM
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Default Re: Research Initiative of the Week: The Effect of Self Efficacy and Verbal Persuasion on Performance

[ QUOTE ]

In a bodybuilding related story, Skip LaCour never thought he could get shredded glutes until he heard of another natural bodybuilder who had achieved that condition. Now, he never even saw this bodybuilder or learned his name, but simply believing that it was possible allowed him to go to the next level. Now he doesn't even consider himself ready for a show without shredded glutes.

[/ QUOTE ]

Awesome! That is a form of modeling. Results show modeling is most effective when you model someone who is similar to you, and get to watch the model go through the learning process. So that is a great example!

[ QUOTE ]

I'm getting to be all about positive thinking these days.
As Earl Nightingale said, "We become what we think about." In his audio tape he quotes a doctor who said, "If you think in positive terms you achieve positive results." I'm believing this more and more. Right now I am making my way through Personal Power II.

You know what has really helped my workouts out? I pray before every set, either in my mind or under my breath. I usually cross my heart right before starting the set. I pray that God will keep me safe, focused, allow me to take the set to absolute failure, and keep the stimulation in the intended muscle group. I offer my hard work to the Lord and pray that I bring him Glory through my body and effot. Mentally it focuses me and I feel safer and more confident after a short talk with God.

[/ QUOTE ]

That is great! [img]/forum/images/graemlins/laugh.gif[/img]
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Matthew 7:20
And Jesus said unto them, Because of your unbelief: for verily I say unto you, If ye have faith as a grain of mustard seed, ye shall say unto this mountain, Remove hence to yonder place; and it shall remove; and nothing shall be impossible unto you.
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