Re: Some female advice is needed
Okay, here we go. I am going to throw some stuff at you and can relay it to her and see if she is willing to do it. I can help you around some stuff, but it also takes a bit of determination and doing many things you don't want to do.
I pick up that picks at food. You say she eats fruit all day and also has an occasional bag of chips. Until she can eyeball food servings and know when to eat what, things have to be measured. She should stay at a certain range of calories and consume certain macronutrients during certain times.
Being 147 lbs, I would say she should not go under 1,300 at any means, and the lowest she should be recommended to go is 1,400. (depending on whether you think she is an undereater or overeater when dieting is what you should tell her. If you know she always measures up to make sure she is in calorie deficit, then you should tell her no more than 1,400. If she normally still snacks and overeats when dieting then you should tell her 1,300, just to be safe.)
Calorie cycling is also a good idea, so the same number of calories should not be eaten every day. So one day she'd eat 1,300, the next 1,500, the next, 1,400, the next 1,300, etc. I believe the range should be 1,300-1,600. You can also tell her one day a week, maybe on a day you guys go out to dinner, etc. she can have a cheat meal which will make the day go up to 1,700 or 1,800 calories. That can be her high calorie day.
If she is not willing to go to the gym every day, carb cycling is a good idea too. Carb cycling is when you vary the amount of carbs you eat every day. I would make "high carb" days on workout days, and "low carb" days on non-workout days. This could follow calorie cycling, as in high calorie days are also high carb days. However, on low carb days more fats have to be taken in as replacement fuel/calories.
Now meal timing. There are no snacks. Another way of looking at it is there are no meals, just snacks all day. Every meal(/snack) should have protein in it. Period. Lean protein. You can add your own fat it in if necessary.
I believe carbs should always be eaten before and after working out no matter how late it is. Although insulin sensitvity is higher at night and you're going to bed soon, blah blah blah, after working out, muscles are begging to be replenished. Fat gain is high minimized when carbs are taken in post workout. This helps recover your muscles faster, allowing repair and growth, fuels your next workout, and frankly, makes you not feel like crap the next day. Another good time to consume carbs if for breakfast. They will burned off throughout the day as necessary. Your muscles are also glycogen depleted in the morning after "fasting" all night.
Personally, I eat carbs in all my meals except for the one right before bed. I tolerate carbs well. I also mix carbs and fats. This is my choice, and many people believe it is not omptimal. Fat is anabolic and is the building block of many cells as amino acids are to protein. They also help regulate my blood sugar levels. Just to be safe though, on high carbs/workout days you can keep the diet relatively fat-free, then on low carb/rest days you can add many healthful fats. Once again, you must prod a little with her and see how far she is willing to go.
This is a basic meal plan for a high carb day off the top of my head, I'm just putting rough calories:
upon rising: 1/2 cup oatmeal, 1 cup eggwhites, veggies, about 50 calories worth (320)
lunch: 1 slice ezikiel bread, 100 calorie chicken breast (about 3 oz, raw), lettuce, tomato, onion, etc, about 50 calories worth (230)
(if she can, ask her to go to the bathroom and have a protein shake sometime between lunch and pre-workout. Just keep whey in a bottle and add water and drink. 130 calories)
pre-workout: 3/4 cup brown rice, 100 calories worth shrimp, chicken, some kind of lean meat (265)
post-workout: 4 oz raw sweet potato, 100 calories lean meat, veggies (250)
post-sleep: 1/2 cup cottage cheese, 1 tsp fish oil (100)
Its about 1,300 calories. I'd suggest to let her have 1 piece of fruit during the day. Also allow unlimited green vegetables. (but without any oil or dressing or anything) Try to explain to her startchy carbs allow better weight loss than fructose carbs.
For low carb days, I'd just take the carb servings out of certain meals and replace them with vegetables and oil. For example, pre-workout and post workout you'd take out the brown rice and sweet potato. Then add 1 tbsp of olive oil (or flax oil, fish oil, edo's oil, CLA, something healthful) and some extra vegetables.
About training. I think 3x a week is absolute minimum. Correct weight loss is only 1-2 lbs a week, and that really only if you work your (!@#$%^&*) off. Explain the better/quicker she does this, the quicker she can go to maintenance and become a BIT more linient. Okay, if you're doing 3x a week, weights and cardio should be on the same day. The days should also be seperated by atleast one day, if possible. I would also suggest a 2 day split. One day upper body and one day lower body. She also has to lift HEAVY. As in, if she can do more than 10-12 reps with that weight, its not heavy enough. Explain to her its nearly impossible to gain mass on a diet, and to trust you that absolutely no one gets big "by accident". Just convince her to lift heavy. I'm assuming you know a bit about weight training so you can help her. I'd also suggest about 30 minutes of carido AFTER weights. Steady state or HIIT is fine. Just make sure she burns a good amount of calories. If she wants, let her add more cardio to her routine if she thinks weight isn't coming off quickly enough. I would never do more than 50 minutes at a time.
I also like the idea of working out a little bit every day. Examples are doing some jumping jacks or jump roping for about ten minutes a day, seperate from your workout. I'd do it once in the morning, and once at night too if she didn't workout that day.
Maybe this isn't what you asked for, and she just wants something simple to follow and shed some pounds. Usually things aren't that simple, and weight loss is a big effort. Back in the day I used to eat three 200-300 calorie meals a day earlier in the day, then a 400-700 calorie meal in the evening. Everything I'd eat was "clean". I'd only workout 3-4x a week, for about an hour or so. Some weights and some cardio, nothing structured. On the weekend I'd sometimes eat whatever I want, but kept it to a minimum. I am 5'9", so this was pretty very low calorie for me. I did manage to lose weight, about 2 lbs a week, but I also gained it back and then some. If she wants to do something like that, yes it'll get her weight loss. This following something structured will reap better long term results.