Re: Research Question of the Week—The Effect of External Rewards on Intrinsic Motivation
Thanks for your input. [img]/forum/images/graemlins/laugh.gif[/img]
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Also, isnt God considered extrinsic motivation? I dont pray just to pray. I pray to praise God and for his blessings.
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Well, it really helps to understand the definition of extrinsic and intrinsic motivation. Let me elaborate on this, and think about why you pray etc. within this framework.
There are 3 types of intrinsic motivations (Weinberg & Gould, 2003):
Being intrinsically motivated for knowledge occurs when athletes participate in activates because of the pleasure and satisfaction they get from learning, acquiring, and studying something new in their sport. This would include learning how to squat, or refining your pattern on dead lifts.
Being intrinsically motivated for accomplishments occurs when athletes participate in activates because of the pleasure and satisfaction they get from mastering various skills. For example, reaching a goal of squatting 400 pounds in the weight room, or requiring perfect form on dead lift.
Being intrinsically motivated for stimulation occurs when athletes participate in activates because of the pleasure and satisfaction they get from pleasant sensations such as danger, pain, or excitement they feel from exercise. For example, the rush you get when lifting heavy in the weight room, or posing down on stage.
Extrinsic Motivation can be defined as performance of an activity in order to attain some separate outcome (Ryan & Deci, 2000). Therefore, athletes that are extrinsically motivated participate in sport for external causes such as rewards, positive feedback, recognition, etc. rather than for the inherent satisfaction of performing the activity itself (intrinsic motivation). There are 4 types of extrinsic motivations (Weinberg & Gould, 2003):
* Integrated regulation
* Identified regulation
* Introjected regulation
* External regulation
Integrated regulation occurs when athletes participate in an activity because of a desired outcome, rather than for the pleasure of participating itself. For example, a bodybuilder trains so that he can compete one day.
Identified regulation occurs when athletes participate in an activity because the activity is considered of high value and important to the participant, even if they do not enjoy the activity itself. For example, most bodybuilders hate cardio, but they value and perform it frequently, because it can help get them shredded.
One important concept to understand is that these two forms of extrinsic motivation and the three forms of intrinsic motivation all involve the athlete participating in sports by their own initiative, because they want to participate for some desired outcome (autonomous). Therefore, these 5 subtopics of motivation have been found to positively influence affective, behavioral, and cognitive functions (Vallerand, 1997; Vallerand and Rousseau, 2001).
Introjected regulation occurs when athletes participate in an activity because of various pressures. For example, trying to lift heavy, or posing in the weight room, so you can impress people in the gym. Or training so that you can get huge, and gain self recognition and approval from others. Evidence suggests that Introjected regulation increases anxiety, tension, and anxiety (Ryan & Connel, 1999). An outcome oriented mentality (click Here for more information), in which ones worth is on the line, and their self esteem is contingent on the outcome, is another example of introjection.
External regulation occurs when athletes participate in an activity only because they feel they have to, or because they may get a reward. For example, playing for the money. In a real life, setting, this would include, telling someone if you do such and such, I’ll give you such and such. This activity is performed entirely for the reward.
The last term to discuss is amotivation. This is when an athlete is neither intrinsically or extrinsically motivated, and therefore, do not have any reason to participate in an activity. For example, a kid in P.E. class, who sits down on the ground and writes letters on the ground while his/her pears are playing baseball.
I'll discuss the benefits of these types of motivations more in my article. This should give some food for thought, though. [img]/forum/images/graemlins/grin.gif[/img]
Gabriel "Venom" Wilson, Ph.D. Nutritional Sciences
B.S. (Hons) & M.S. in Kinesiology, CSCS
Vice President, ABCbodybuilding
Co-Editor. of JHR
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And Jesus said unto them, Because of your unbelief: for verily I say unto you, If ye have faith as a grain of mustard seed, ye shall say unto this mountain, Remove hence to yonder place; and it shall remove; and nothing shall be impossible unto you.