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-   -   Research Question of the Week—The Effect of External Rewards on Intrinsic Motivation (http://www.abcbodybuilding.com/forums/showthread.php?t=74335)

Venom 12-24-2005 12:04 PM

Research Question of the Week—The Effect of External Rewards on Intrinsic Motivation
 
http://www.wewillbuyyourhouse.com/images/reward.jpg

For over 30 years now, there has been an intense debate on the effects of external rewards on intrinsic motivation. First, we need to operationally define our terms.

Motivation can be defined as the intensity and direction of effort (McCullagh, 2005). Intensity refers to the quantity of effort, while direction refers to what you are drawn too. Evidence suggests that enhanced motivation promotes learning, performance, enjoyment, and persistence in sport, among other benefits (McCullagh, 2005; Wilson, 2005; Fry & Fry, 1999). Therefore, methods to enhance motivation have been thoroughly investigated.

There are two forms of motivation: intrinsic and extrinsic motivation.

Intrinsic motivation can be defined as an individuals need to feel competency and pride in something. Therefore, athletes who are intrinsically motivated participate in sports because they love the experience, and do not expect anything from it other than the satisfaction and pleasure they get from participation.

Conversely, Athletes that are extrinsically motivated participate in sport for external causes such as rewards, positive feedback, recognition, etc.

Based on his research, the current author suggests that a reward can be defined as an external agent administered when a desired act or task is performed, that has controlling and informational properties. Rewards can come in the form of verbal rewards (i.e. telling someone “good job!”), physical rewards (i.e. a pat on the back), or tangible rewards (i.e. giving someone money, food, or a medallion), among others.

There are much more details to give on motivation and rewards, but this information will suffice for this thread.

The question is this: do extrinsic rewards enhance motivation? It was originally thought by many that extrinsic rewards would enhance motivation for a task that was already intrinsically motivating. This seemed as simple as 1 (external reward) +1 (already present intrinsic motivation) = 2 (more motivation). But the results are much more complex than this.

Let me give an example to make sure this is clear.

Deci (1971) had participants play on an inherently interesting task, called the SOMA puzzle. Participants were paid to play, were given verbal rewards (i.e. verbally encouraged), or received no reinforcement for participating. I’ll let you guys guess the results!

In this context, the purpose of this thread was to discuss whether extrinsic rewards enhance motivation for an already intrinsically motivated task.

I’ll post my comments in JHR in a few weeks. [img]/forum/images/graemlins/wink.gif[/img]

kprzCreation 12-24-2005 09:52 PM

Re: Research Question of the Week—The Effect of External Rewards on Intrinsic Motivation
 
I believe extrinsic motivation enhances motivation. Look at the boxer John Braddock. He was a light heavy weight champ and at his peak before the depression (already intrinsically motivated). Then when the depression hit, his wins became losses untill he got his licensed revoked. In the boxing world hes considered a washed up old man. Then his old manager came and gave him a match with the number one heavyweight contender in which he'll fight the next night, since the original fighter cancelled and no one would fight the guy with out training. To cut a long story short, he beats him and everyone else to become the champ. He fought for food and the utility bills, so his kids wont starve or freeze to death.

Also, isnt God considered extrinsic motivation? I dont pray just to pray. I pray to praise God and for his blessings.

Venom 12-26-2005 03:42 AM

Re: Research Question of the Week—The Effect of External Rewards on Intrinsic Motivation
 
Thanks for your input. [img]/forum/images/graemlins/laugh.gif[/img]

[ QUOTE ]
Also, isnt God considered extrinsic motivation? I dont pray just to pray. I pray to praise God and for his blessings.

[/ QUOTE ]

Well, it really helps to understand the definition of extrinsic and intrinsic motivation. Let me elaborate on this, and think about why you pray etc. within this framework.

There are 3 types of intrinsic motivations (Weinberg & Gould, 2003):

* Knowledge
* Accomplishment
* Stimulation

Being intrinsically motivated for knowledge occurs when athletes participate in activates because of the pleasure and satisfaction they get from learning, acquiring, and studying something new in their sport. This would include learning how to squat, or refining your pattern on dead lifts.

Being intrinsically motivated for accomplishments occurs when athletes participate in activates because of the pleasure and satisfaction they get from mastering various skills. For example, reaching a goal of squatting 400 pounds in the weight room, or requiring perfect form on dead lift.

Being intrinsically motivated for stimulation occurs when athletes participate in activates because of the pleasure and satisfaction they get from pleasant sensations such as danger, pain, or excitement they feel from exercise. For example, the rush you get when lifting heavy in the weight room, or posing down on stage.

Extrinsic Motivation can be defined as performance of an activity in order to attain some separate outcome (Ryan & Deci, 2000). Therefore, athletes that are extrinsically motivated participate in sport for external causes such as rewards, positive feedback, recognition, etc. rather than for the inherent satisfaction of performing the activity itself (intrinsic motivation). There are 4 types of extrinsic motivations (Weinberg & Gould, 2003):

* Integrated regulation
* Identified regulation
* Introjected regulation
* External regulation

Integrated regulation occurs when athletes participate in an activity because of a desired outcome, rather than for the pleasure of participating itself. For example, a bodybuilder trains so that he can compete one day.

Identified regulation occurs when athletes participate in an activity because the activity is considered of high value and important to the participant, even if they do not enjoy the activity itself. For example, most bodybuilders hate cardio, but they value and perform it frequently, because it can help get them shredded.

One important concept to understand is that these two forms of extrinsic motivation and the three forms of intrinsic motivation all involve the athlete participating in sports by their own initiative, because they want to participate for some desired outcome (autonomous). Therefore, these 5 subtopics of motivation have been found to positively influence affective, behavioral, and cognitive functions (Vallerand, 1997; Vallerand and Rousseau, 2001).

Introjected regulation occurs when athletes participate in an activity because of various pressures. For example, trying to lift heavy, or posing in the weight room, so you can impress people in the gym. Or training so that you can get huge, and gain self recognition and approval from others. Evidence suggests that Introjected regulation increases anxiety, tension, and anxiety (Ryan & Connel, 1999). An outcome oriented mentality (click Here for more information), in which ones worth is on the line, and their self esteem is contingent on the outcome, is another example of introjection.

External regulation occurs when athletes participate in an activity only because they feel they have to, or because they may get a reward. For example, playing for the money. In a real life, setting, this would include, telling someone if you do such and such, I’ll give you such and such. This activity is performed entirely for the reward.

The last term to discuss is amotivation. This is when an athlete is neither intrinsically or extrinsically motivated, and therefore, do not have any reason to participate in an activity. For example, a kid in P.E. class, who sits down on the ground and writes letters on the ground while his/her pears are playing baseball.


I'll discuss the benefits of these types of motivations more in my article. This should give some food for thought, though. [img]/forum/images/graemlins/grin.gif[/img]


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